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■ j^ Agriculture
Research Direction generate
Branch de la recherche
["he map on the covei has dots representing
Agri< ulture Canada resean h establishments.
£ ■♦ Canada
R. P. KNOWLES
Agriculture Canada Research Station,
Agriculture Canada Research Station,
Swift Current, Saskatchewan
Copies of this publication are available from:
Dr. R. F. Knowles
Research Branch, Agriculture Canada
107 Science Cres.
Produced by Research Program Service
©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1983
- Ill -
Summary /Resume iv
Description and varieties 1
Control of weeds 8
Use for hay 9
Use for pasture 9
Response to fertilizers 11
Seed production 12
Renovation of old stands 16
Regrassing abandoned farmland and depleted range ... 17
Lawns, yards, and roadsides 18
- IV —
Crested wheatgrass was introduced to Western Canada from Eastern Europe
about 1900. It is particularly well adapted to the Dark Brown and
Brown soil zones of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, and the intermountain
areas of British Columbia. It was widely used in the 1930s for
reseeding badly eroded areas, and since then for hay production and for
pasture and rangeland alone or with alfalfa. It outyields native
grasses severalfold and is particularly useful in complementing native
pastures, because it produces most of its growth in May and June before
the native pasture is ready for grazing.
Originaire de 1' Europe de l'est, l'agropyre a crete a fait son apparition
dans l'ouest du Canada vers les annees 1900. II convient particulierement
bien aux zones de sol brun fonce et brun de la Saskatchewan et du sud de
1' Alberta, ainsi qu ' aux terres qui s'etendent entre les montagnes de la
Colombie-Britannique. Dans les annees 1930, l'agropyre a crete etait
communement utilise pour lutter contre 1' erosion et de nos jours, on
le seme en champ pour son foin et en paturage ou en grand parcours, seule
ou en association avec la luzerne. Son rendement est de loin superieur
a celui des graminees indigenes pour lesquelles il est un complement
utile, car sa croissance est maximale en mai et en juin, lorsque les
plantes locales ne sont pas encore pretes a etre broutees.
- 1 -
Crested wheatgrass is a major cultivated grass in Western Canada.
It was introduced from Eastern Europe to North America about 1900, but was
not widely distributed in Western Canada until 1930. In the subsequent
drought period 1931-37, it was used extensively to reseed soil-drifted
areas and abandoned farmland. The grass has gained general acceptance as
an excellent spring and fall pasture crop for dry areas. It is also used
for dryland turf and roadside seedings in the dry prairie and
intermountain areas. Seed production in Canada averaged 473 000 kg for
the years 1975-79, with approximately 60% of this seed exported to the
Crested wheatgrass is particularly well adapted to the Brown and Dark
Brown soil zones of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, and the intermountain
areas of British Columbia. Yields of crested wheatgrass are comparable to
those of other grasses in the Black soil zone, but stands do not persist
well in this zone. It is suited to most soils, including sands and clays.
Crested wheatgrass is not tolerant of flooding, and if submerged for
7-10 days the subsequent yields are seriously reduced. Present strains
are not well adapted to saline soils. Other grasses such as Russian wild
ryegrass, Altai wild ryegrass, tall wheatgrass, and slender wheatgrass
show more salinity tolerance. Stands of crested wheatgrass usually
remain productive for many years. In the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones
many stands have been maintained for 30-40 years.
DESCRIPTION AND VARIETIES
Crested wheatgrass is a bunch-type plant. Single plants in thin
seedings may form large tufts 30-45 cm across. There is considerable
variation in height and form of plants for different cultivars of
crested wheatgrass (Fig. 1 and Table 1). The Fairway type, Agropyron
cristatum (L.) Gaertn., is shorter and more leafy than the standard type,
A. desertorum (Fisch.) Schult. Parkway is a taller form of the Fairway
type. Summit and Nordan represent the standard type and are similar in
appearance, although in the year of seeding Summit remains rosetted,
whereas Nordan may head out. Leaves of the Fairway type characteristically
have fine hairs or pubescence on the upper surface, whereas the leaves
of the standard type are smooth. Nordan and Summit remain greener than
Fairway and Parkway under severe drought. However, Fairway and Parkway
stands last longer than those of Summit and Nordan under more moist
conditions in the Black soil zone.
- 2 -
- 3 -
Table 1. Comparison of crested wheatgrass varieties
( Agropyron cristatum )
(Agropyron desertorum )
Number of seeds
Tip awns on seeds
Long, narrow Long, narrow
71 cm 71 cm
One of the best ways of distinguishing the two types is by head shape
(Fig. 2). Fairway and Parkway have shorter, wider heads than Summit and
Nordan. Spikelets on heads in Fairway and Parkway are set at a wider
angle to the rachis. Fairway and Parkway have 14 chromosomes; Summit and
Nordan have 28 chromosomes. The two types do not cross readily, although
some experimental hybrids have been produced.
Crested wheatgrass has an extensive root system, reaching a depth of
nearly 3 m in old stands, resulting in large amounts of fiber being added
to the soil. At Saskatoon, a 2-year-old stand produced 4 t of fiber in
a hectare of soil to a depth of 30 cm, and about 8 t in an 8-year-old
The Fairway cultivar was released in Canada in 1932 and is still
popular. It is widely grown for pasture, roadside seedings, and dryland
turf. Parkway was selected out of Fairway as a taller type, better for
hay, and released in 1969. Summit was released in 1953, and Summit 62,
a reselection with somewhat better seed yields, was released in 1962.
Summit is the highest-yielding crested wheatgrass in Canadian hay trials,
but has lost favor because of seed-cleaning difficulties. Approximately
50% of the florets in Summit are sterile, and these sterile florets may
remain attached to normal seeds during cleaning. Nordan was released in
1958 in North Dakota, USA, and is now widely grown for forage and seed in
Canada. The total Canadian pedigreed seed area for crested wheatgrass in
1980 was 1335 ha, with the following cultivar distribution: Nordan 45%,
Fairway 42%, Parkway 12%, Summit 1%. Yields of forage and seed for these
cultivars in Western Canada tests are given in Table 2.
- A -
Fig. 2. Heads of crested wheatgrass varieties:
A: Fairway or Parkway; _B: Summit. (Nordan is
similar to Summit but usually lacks tip awns.)
- 5 -
Table 2. Relative yields of crested wheatgrass
varieties in Western Canada from experimental
tests at Agriculture Canada research stations
Variety Hay Seed
Fairway 100 100
Parkway 104 124
Summit 110 98
Nordan 102 102
Time of seeding and land preparation
In the prairie area, sow either in early spring or in late October
just before freeze-up. Seedings in July and August increase the risk of
loss from drought and heat damage, although in northern areas, summer
seedings are often satisfactory. In the intermountain areas of British
Columbia, seeding between late August and mid-October is preferred.
Seeding in these areas between early April and mid-May also gives adequate
stands, but higher seeding rates are required.
Seeding may be done directly into cereal stubble immediately after
the spring breakup. Prior land preparation to control weeds is generally
required when seeding late in the spring. If a companion crop is used, sow
on fallow rather than on stubble land, because this reduces competition
for moisture. Always pack freshly worked land to prevent it from drying
out before seeding. Packing also helps to control depth of seeding. There
is a real danger of getting poor stands if the soil is loose. Fall seeding
into stubble prevents loss from soil drifting.
Depth of seeding
Deep seeding is the most common cause of stand failure with crested
wheatgrass. Seed should be sown 1-2 cm deep. This is particularly
important on heavy soils. Tests on loam soils under favorable conditions
in the greenhouse show only 25% emergence of the Fairway type when seeded
5 cm deep, and 50% emergence of the standard type.
Alfalfa mixtures, rates of seeding, row spacings
For maximum production, crested wheatgrass should be grown with
alfalfa. Grass-alfalfa mixtures yield up to two times as much as grasses
seeded alone. Old stands of grass-alfalfa may yield four times as much as
grass seeded alone. Competition from crested wheatgrass may eliminate
- 6 -
alfalfa in dry areas after a few years. Summit and Nordan, and to some
extent Parkway, are less competitive than Fairway and allow a higher
proportion of alfalfa in a mixture with higher yields (Tables 3 and 4) .
Table 3. Hay yields of crested wheatgrass varieties in alfalfa mixtures,
Saskatoon (30-cm row spacing, no fertilizer applied)
Hay yields (t/ha)
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Percentage of alfalfa
Variety 1968-70 1969-71 1974-77 Average Average of three tests
Table 4. Hay yields of crested wheatgrass varieties in
alfalfa mixtures, Swift Current (30-cm row spacing,
no fertilizer applied)
Experiments in the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones show that the
yield of hay, pasture, or seed from rows spaced 60-90 cm apart is as
much as or more than the yield from rows spaced 15-30 cm apart (Table 5).
Wide rows allow plants to escape from drought and encourage development of
more alfalfa in the mixture. Disadvantages of wide spacing are lower
yields for the first year after t seeding, more difficult weed control
initially, and an uneven surface for harvesting hay or seed. Cross
seeding of the grass to the alfalfa is recommended for pasture in order to
reduce competition on the alfalfa from crested wheatgrass.
Recommended seeding rates for alfalfa mixtures are given in Table 6.
- 7 -
Table 5. Forage and seed yields of crested wheatgrass at various
Location and soil zone
Swift Current - Brown
Saskatoon - Dark Brown
Scott - Dark Brown
Lethbridge - Dark Brown
Melfort - Black
Beaverlodge - Gray Wooded
- 8 -
Table 6. Seeding rates for crested wheatgrass-alfalfa mixtures in
various soil zones*
Alternate or same
*From Saskatchewan Guide to Farm Practice, 1981.
A handy method of checking seeding rates is to run the drill over
a hard surface and count the number of seeds falling per metre of run.
About 50-70 seeds per metre of run usually give a good stand.
CONTROL OF WEEDS
Old plants of crested wheatgrass compete well with weeds, but young
stands are sensitive to competition from weeds or a companion crop.
This competition may cause low yields of either hay or seed the year
following seeding. Competition from the companion crop is less severe
when the seeding rate of the grain crop is reduced to one-half the
normal seeding rate, and when the cereal is cut early for hay or silage.
Crested wheatgrass should be 7-10 cm high before it is treated with
herbicides. Pasturing young stands is undesirable because cattle tend
to graze the grass and leave the weeds. To control weeds, mowing or
swathing is preferable to grazing. Old weedy stands being harvested for
seed should be treated with herbicides before the end of May. For
perennial weeds, apply herbicides after the seed crop has been taken off.
- 9 -
USE FOR HAY
Crested wheatgrass compares well with other grasses in hay yield and
hay quality (Fig. 3 and Table 7). The quality of hay, however, declines
rapidly after heading . At Saskatoon, heading occurs about 10 June,
and flowering occurs about 1 July. To obtain maximum yield of digestible
nutrients, it is recommended that crested wheatgrass hay be cut during
the second or third week of June, i.e., between heading and flowering.
Crested wheatgrass-alfalfa mixtures may be harvested until 1 July
without great loss of hay quality.
Table 7. Dry matter yields and protein content percentages of crested
wheatgrass compared with other grasses
Yield of dry matter
Swift Current - single test harvested 1952-56
Crested wheatgrass 2.3
Russian wild ryegrass 1.2
Saskatoon - three tests 1952-61, each test harvested for
Crested wheatgrass 3.0
Russian wild ryegrass 3.0
Intermediate wheatgrass 3.5
Brome grass 2.4
Melfort - three tests 1949-56, each test harvested for
Crested wheatgrass 3.0
Russian wild ryegrass 2.0
Intermediate wheatgrass 3.9
USE FOR PASTURE
Crested wheatgrass is used extensively for pasture in the drier parts
of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. It is unexcelled for
early spring pasture. Russian wild ryegrass is also early, but it does
not provide the volume of production of crested wheatgrass. Crested
wheatgrass makes most of its seasonal growth and production in the first
5 or 6 weeks through May and early June. For maximum utilization,
grazing should be heavy during this early spring period.
- 10 -
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Protein content of crested wheatgrass (CWG),
Russian wild ryegrass (RWR) , and smooth
broraegrass (BR) .
Digestibility of crested wheatgrass (CWG),
Russian wild ryegrass (RWR) , and smooth
bromegrass (BR) .
Fig. 3. Seasonal decline in digestibility and protein of
crested wheatgrass hay compared with other grasses.
- 11 -
Crested wheatgrass is an excellent grass to complement native grass
pasture or rangeland. It produces an abundance of high-quality grass
before native grasses are ready for grazing. Because of the heavy milk
flow of cows grazing crested wheatgrass through this May and early June
period, calves on cows have shown exceptional growth rates. In turn,
the native grass benefits greatly from deferred grazing.
In average seasons at Swift Current, about 0.4 ha of crested
wheatgrass provides 4-6 weeks of good spring grazing for each cow and
calf. At this location even better production is obtained by cross
seeding crested wheatgrass to the alfalfa with both the grass and alfalfa
seeded in rows spaced 90 cm apart. Bloat did not occur at Swift Current
provided spring grazing commenced when the grass was 10 cm high and
alfalfa growth had just started.
Crested wheatgrass often shows poor palatability compared to other
seeded grasses or native grass. This, however, does not mean it is
necessarily inferior. What it means is that optimum or maximum
usefulness of crested wheatgrass requires controlled grazing management
by fencing. If cattle are confined on crested wheatgrass, they will
readily accept it as pasture and, in turn, do very well. However, if
they are given a choice, they will neglect crested wheatgrass and overgraze
either Russian wild ryegrass or native grass.
Taint in milk is likely to occur when crested wheatgrass is used for
early spring grazing. This tainting is not a problem with beef cattle
where calves only are using the milk. However, with dairy herds it is
probably best to use Russian wild ryegrass for early spring pasture.
Concern has sometimes been expressed about the occurrence of
scattered "stag" plants of crested wheatgrass that are not grazed.
Actually this is more of a blessing than a curse. Scattered ungrazed
plants of crested wheatgrass assist in holding drifting snow and result
in a desirable snowpack for soil moisture buildup.
RESPONSE TO FERTILIZERS
Nitrogen fertilizer used on stands of crested wheatgrass that are 3
years old, or more, will give large yield increases. This is because
crested wheatgrass grown alone has a high demand on soil nitrogen. After
only a few years the nitrogen supply in the soil is used up. Without
nitrogen the plants' growth is limited and they become pale green. This
is sometimes referred to as a sod-bound condition. This condition is not
a physical crowding of roots, as the name implies, but simply a symptom of
an acute lack of nitrogen.
It has been shown that even in the drier areas, such as at Swift
Current, crested wheatgrass can take up as much nitrogen as 50-70 kg/ha
- 12 -
per year under average to good precipitation. A kilogram of nitrogen
can, under average to good soil moisture conditions, give an additional
20 kg of dry matter grass production, although the average may not be
that high in the Brown soil zone.
For hay or pasture production the preferred time to apply nitrogen
fertilizer is in early spring. An application can also be made in late
fall, but some gaseous loss may occur then if urea or urea-containing
granular or liquid fertilizers are used.
Fertilizer nitrogen on nitrogen-deficient stands of crested
wheatgrass should be applied at about 50 kg/ha. If it is a dry year,
and consequently not all used, it will remain in the soil for use in the
next growing season. This is called "residual response" in succeeding
years. It has been demonstrated that high rates of nitrogen, such as
200-300 kg/ha, or more, will give residual responses for 4-6 years.
There is little response by grass to phosphorus fertilizers unless high
rates of nitrogen are used on an annual basis. Additionally, a
nitrogen-fertilized field of crested wheatgrass will commence growth
slightly earlier in the spring than would a nonfertilized field. More
importantly, it will show an accelerated rate of growth, thus producing
earlier pasture use.
In an experiment at Swift Current where liveweight seasonal cattle
gain was only 17-20 kg/ha on native rangeland, it was 70-80 kg/ha on
unfertilized crested wheatgrass and 110-120 kg/ha when nitrogen was
applied at the rate of 50 kg/ha. On grass intended for hay where 1 kg
of nitrogen costs seventy cents per kilogram and gives 20 kg extra dry
matter production, then an extra tonne of feed is obtained for an
expenditure of $35.00 for fertilizer.
Crested wheatgrass is a good seed producer; yields up to 1000 kg/ha
have been recorded. Seed yields depend greatly on moisture conditions,
row spacing, age of stand, and fertilizer application (see Fig. 4,
Table 8) .
Rows spaced 60-90 cm apart give more seed than rows spaced 15-30 cm
apart if stands are left down 3-4 years. Irrigation improves seed
yields, particularly if fertilizer is also applied. Yields usually
decline after the second seed crop, but fertilizers help keep yields up.
Seed yields are often low for the first seed crop if a companion crop
was used when the grass was seeded.
- 13 -
Fig. 4. Seed yields of Summit crested wheatgrass, Scott, Sask.
at narrow- and wide-row spacing, and with and without
irrigation and fertilization. Fertilizer nitrogen — 50 kg/ha
per year. Irrigation — 38 cm by sprinkler.
- 14 -
Table 8. Effect of fertilizer on seed yields of Summit crested wheatgrass
at Indian Head, Sask. (Nitrogen applied at the rate of 70 kg/ha each fall)
Treatment 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Average
*90-cm space between each three-row group, rows 30 cm apart in the group.
When seeding crested wheatgrass in rows spaced 90 cm apart, use a
seeding rate of 2-3 kg/ha. Herbicides should be used to control weeds
during the year of seeding. In subsequent years, inter-row cultivation
should be done in the spring and early fall to kill weeds and volunteer
crested wheatgrass. Inter -row cultivation tends to build up the rows
above the general field level and this makes it difficult to pick up
combine swaths. A combination of narrow- and wide-spaced rows will
provide a strip to lay the swath on and give some yield advantage from
wide spacings (see Fig. 5). This may consist of three-row groups spaced
30 cm apart, with 90 cm cultivated strips between these groups. Various
combinations of rows can be made for various sizes of swathers.
An alternative method for short-term production is the use of 30-cm
spaced rows with fairly heavy annual applications of nitrogenous
Swathing is preferable to straight combining because the crop
shatters easily. Shattering also may occur when picking up the swath.
Fairway and Parkway shatter more than either Summit or Nordan. Crested
wheatgrass is usually ready for swathing in late July or the first week in
August. Heads will be brown and stems still green at this time. The crop
is ready for swathing when heads shatter a few seeds if struck across the
palm of one's hand.
When threshing crested wheatgrass do not feed the machine too heavily.
Concaves should be set to give a minimum of straw breakage to prevent
clogging decks and sieves. Reduced cylinder speed with normal forward
speed will reduce straw breakage. Concave clearance should be just enough
to break up the heads into separate seeds. If spikelets are not broken up,
they will be lost in later cleaning. The air blast and adjustable sieve
should be checked carefully.
- 15 -
Fig. 5. Crested wheatgrass sown in three-row groups,
showing the swath from three groups laid on one group,
Satisfactory cleaning can be done on the farm with the ordinary fanning
mill. As a guide, the size of the opening in the top sieve should range
from 1.2 to 2 mm wide and from 6 to 12 mm long. For the bottom sieve,
round-hole openings 1-1.5 mm in diameter are suggested.
For maximum returns, seed growers should grow Certified seed of
named cultivars rather than unnamed common seed. To grow Certified seed
it is necessary to become a member of the Canadian Seed Growers'
Association and follow its regulations. The Association handbook,
Circular 6, states the classes of seed to sow in order to grow Certified
seed and gives the isolation distances required. To produce Certified
seed of most cultivars of crested wheatgrass , it is necessary to plant
Foundation seed. For Nordan, Foundation or Registered seed can be used
to produce Certified seed. Certified seed fields must be isolated from
all other crested wheatgrass fields and volunteer plants by 50 m. For
further details on Certified seed production write to the Canadian Seed
Growers' Association, Box 8455, Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3T1.
Seed yields can be maintained at a higher level by broadcasting
nitrogen fertilizers (see Fig. 4 and Table 8). There is little response
to phosphorus fertilizers such as ammonium phosphate 11-48-0. Nitrogen
at the rate of 30-70 kg/ha is recommended for seed production on Brown
or Dark Brown soils. This may be increased to 30-90 kg/ha on Black,
Dark Gray, and Gray Wooded soils, and 40-130 kg/ha for irrigation. Under
favorable conditions 2-3 kg of additional seed are produced for every
kilogram of nitrogen applied.
RENOVATION OF OLD STANDS
Crested wheatgrass not growing with alfalfa and not fertilized
usually shows a marked decline in yields after three hay crops (see Table 9)
Seed yields usually decline more rapidly than hay yields, particularly with
narrow-row spacings or if there is volunteer growth from shattered seed.
Crested wheatgrass sod will not recover from plowing as will
bromegrass sod. Experiments at Swift Current, Sask. , and Mandan, ND,
showed that attempted rejuvenation of old crested wheatgrass stands, with
heavy duty cultivators, discers, and Noble blade gave unsatisfactory
yield responses. In addition, this tillage left the field rough and
difficult to mow. Best results by far were obtained by leaving the sod
intact, and applying nitrogen fertilizers. Attempts to incorporate alfalfa
in newly cultivated crested wheatgrass sod gave poor alfalfa establishment,
and yields were below those when nitrogen fertilizers were used.
Herbicides applied in mid-June in combination with fertilizers
improved yields more than the use of fertilizers alone. High rates of
2,4-D (acid equivalent 2.8-3.1 kg/ha) low volatile ester were used.
- 17 -
Table 9. Hay yields of Fairway crested wheatgrass for various
ages of stands, tonnes per hectare (no fertilizer applied)
Age of stand Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4
Years 1940-55 1936-43 1937-43 1975-81 Average
REGRASSING ABANDONED FARMLAND AND DEPLETED RANGE
Crested wheatgrass is useful for regrassing farmland and overgrazed
prairie of the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones. Russian wild ryegrass
is also adapted for this purpose but establishment is slower than for
crested wheatgrass, especially on sands.
If the land has not been out of cultivation long and only annual weeds
are present, it is not necessary to prepare a seedbed. Seed the grass
into dead weeds either in the fall or in early spring because this will
protect seedlings from soil drifting. If perennial weeds are present or
the soil is hard or badly cracked, some cultivation is desirable. Another
good practice, wherever perennial weeds are present, is to work the land
and seed a cereal crop for one season. Crested wheatgrass is then either
fall seeded or spring seeded into the stubble. This practice is
recommended where soil drifting is not likely to interfere with the
establishment of the cereal crop.
Where native range is overgrazed and weedy, production can be
improved by seeding to crested wheatgrass. Seeding directly into native
sod is usually not successful. However, if the soil is sandy and likely
to drift, it may be necessary to seed the crested wheatgrass without
previous cultivation. Preparation of a seedbed is usually desirable.
Seed should be drilled in, although on stony or rough areas the seed may
have to be broadcast. Broadcasting seed is usually less successful in
getting stands than drilling. Specially built drills involving heavy
rollers and press wheels are being used with considerable success in
seeding newly worked sod in community pastures. Under dry conditions
crested wheatgrass may take 3 or 4 years to become established. Thin stands,
- 18 -
if not overgrazed, will set seed and gradually establish a complete cover
from volunteer seedlings.
Surveys of old stands of crested wheatgrass in Western Canada usually
show some invasion by weeds and native grasses to form stable associations
with crested wheatgrass. This does not appear to have caused any loss of
productivity of the crested wheatgrass component.
LAWNS, YARDS, AND ROADSIDES
Crested wheatgrass has been used for turf in the Brown soil zone for
many years. In recent years, Russian wild ryegrass has excelled crested
wheatgrass as a turf in several respects. It gives a denser cover than
crested wheatgrass and stays greener in summer. Mixtures of the grasses
are more suitable than crested wheatgrass alone. The Fairway cultivar of
crested wheatgrass is best for turf because it is short and persistent.
On small areas use 1.5 kg of seed per 100 m; on large areas this amount can
be reduced to 0.5 kg per 100 m.
Data from several establishments of the Research Branch, Agriculture
Canada, were used in the preparation of this bulletin. Information from
Agriculture Canada establishments at Indian Head, Melfort, Scott,
Lethbridge, Beaver lodge, and Kamloops were used to complement observations
made at the Saskatoon and Swift Current research stations.
square centimetre (cm 2 )
square metre (m 2 )
square kilometre (km 2 )
cubic centimetre (cm 3 )
cubic metre (m 3 )
cubic metre (m 3 )
litres per hectare (L/ha)
gallons per acre
litres per hectare (L/ha)
quarts per acre
litres per hectare (L/ha)
pints per acre
millilitres per hectare (mL/ha)
fl. oz per acre
tonnes per hectare (t/ha)
tons per acre
kilograms per hectare (kg/ha)
lb per acre
grams per hectare (g/ha)
oz avdp per acre
plants per hectare (plants/ ha)
plants per acre
Knowles, R. P. (Robert Patrick),
LIBRARY , BIBLIOTHEQUE
AGRICULTURE CANADA OTTAWA K1A 0C5
3 T073 00000241 2